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===大学生成长生活平台===

2011年全国英语等级考试四级题型串讲:阅读理解-公共英语-

2013-06-05来源/作者:卫凯点击次数:1155

  第四课时 阅读理解
  一、大纲对该部分的要求

2011年pets4题型串讲:阅读理解

  ETS第四级的阅读理解分为两节,其中A节包括4篇短文,大约1,600个的单词,是传统型的阅读理解题,也就是选择题。本节考查考生理解具体信息,把握文章大意,猜测生词词义并且进行推断等能力;B节有一篇约400个单词的短文,要求把其中5处画线的句子或段落(约150词)译成汉语,本节主要考查考生准确理解文章的能力。
  二、Part A部分考点规律及命题趋势
  1. 体裁和题材特点:

2011年pets4题型串讲:阅读理解

  体裁以记叙文、议论文和说明文为主。
  PETS四级考试阅读文章的选材涉及面非常广泛,内容包罗万象,如有关动植物、人物传记、历史、文化、环境、资源、交通、医学、经济、信息等方面。从总体上说,其选材主要集中在科普知识,社会文化和经济生活三方面,这就要求考生平时要阅读报刊书籍,研读名著,了解外国的风土人情、生活习惯、科学技术的发展与进步等等,以便能更好地理解所考文章的内容。
  2. 题型特点

2011年pets4题型串讲:阅读理解

  PETS四级阅读理解Part A部分出现的题型有四种:细节题、推理题、释义题、主旨题和作者的态度题。其中细节题考查的次数最多,在近两年的考试中出现了23次;其次是推理题,在两年共40个小题中出现了13次;接下来必考的题型就是主旨题了;释义题和作者的态度题不是每年必考的,它们在2006、2007年分别出现一次。
  三、Part A部分常见考点讲解与解题技巧
  1.细节题
  (1) 题型特点
  细节题主要考查考生对文章细节的把握能力,这种题型要求考生能够根据文章所提供的信息,找出与问题中具体细节相关的信息,或者直接询问问题中的选项是否在文中提到过或者是否和原文相符。
  考查的细节主要包括:
  ①主要人物、事件、情节、过程、原因和结果、主要的数据、时间和地点;
  ②很多时候可以直接在文中找到答案;
  ③有些题目会有意避开原文材料中所用的词汇,而用其他词汇代替。
  (2) 常见的提问方式
  What is the purpose of …?
  What effect did sth. have on …
  Which of the following best characterizes the main feature of …?
  When did it happen?
  According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true?
  Which of the following is NOT mentioned/ stated in the passage?
  The writer mentions all of the items listed below EXCEPT .
  (3) 策略指南
  此类题目是针对文章的某些情节而设置的,以考查考生理解具体细节的能力,所以只要能在文中找到问题的出处,在对其所在的上下文加以理解,一般就能找到问题的答案。

  相关推荐:
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级题型串讲:英语知识运用
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级题型串讲:听力
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级pets4大纲解读

  (4) 实例分析
  (2007年Part A)
  Du Bois was a sociological and educational pioneer who challenged the established system of education that tended to restrict rather than to advance the progress of black Americans. He challenged what is called the “Tuskegee machine” of Booker T. Washington, the leading educational spokesperson of the blacks in the U.S. A sociologist and historian, Du Bois called for a more determined and activist leadership than Washington provided. Unlike Washington, whose roots were is southern black agriculture, Du Bois’s career spanned both sides of the Mason­Dixon Line. He was a native of Massachusetts, received his undergraduate education from Fisk University in Nashville, did his graduate study at Harvard University, and directed the Atlanta University Studies of Black American Life in the South. Du Bois approached the problem of racial relations in the United States from two dimensions: as a scholarly researcher and as an activist for civil rights. Among his works was the famous empirical sociological study, The Philadelphia Negro: A Social Study, in which he examined that city’s black population and made recommendations for the school system. Du Bois’s Philadelphia study was the pioneer work on urban blacks in America.
  …
  As a leader in education, Du Bois challenged not only the tradition of racial segregation in the schools but also the accommodationist ideology of Booker T. Washington. The major difference between the two men was that Washington sought change that was evolutionary in nature and did not upset the social order, whereas Du Bois demanded immediate change. Du Bois believed in educated leadership for blacks, and he developed a concept referred to as the “talented tenth,” according to which 10 percent of the black population would receive a traditional college education in preparation for leadership.
  54.Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
  [A] Washington would not appreciate the idea of overthrowing social order.
  [B] Racial separation is an outcome of accommodationist ideology.
  [C] Washington would not support determined activist leadership.
  [D] The Philadelphia Negro is a book on blacks in American South.
  2. 推理题
  (1) 题型特点
  推理题属于主观性较强的高层次阅读理解题,要求考生不仅要弄懂文章的字面意思,更要弄清楚文章潜在的含义和作者所给的提示,同时要对文章的含义和作者的暗示做出合理的猜测和推断。
  (2) 常见的提问方式
  What can be inferred from the passage?
  What conclusions can be drawn from the passage?
  What does the paragraph preceding/ following this one probably discuss?
  We can infer/ conclude from the text/ paragraph that
  It can be conclude/ inferred from the passage that
  It implied/ indicated/ suggested that
  The last sentence of the first paragraph most probably implies that
  (3) 策略指南
  推理题的正确答案,往往不是原文某句话的照抄或照搬,而是原文某句话的同义改写或某几句话的总结与归纳,与原文一模一样的答案不能入选。如果在做题的过程中根据原文你推不出答案,这时你可以把它往主旨题上靠拢,根据主旨大意来进行推测。
  (4) 实例分析
  (2007年Part A)
  …
  The 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey depicted commercial shuttles flying to and from a giant wheel­shaped space station in orbit around Earth, bases on the moon, and a piloted mission to Jupiter. The real space activities of 2001 will not match this cinematic vision, but the 21st century will see a continuation of efforts to transform humanity into a spacefaring species.
  …
  42. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that human society will become increasingly
  [A] worried about life on other planets.
  [B] dependent on space tourism.
  [C] accustomed to long-distance flights.
  [D] associated with space exploration.
  3. 释义题
  (1) 题型特点
  此类题目并非单纯考查考生的词汇,而是考查考生根据上下文猜测单词词义及某个单词在具体语境中的具体含义。考查的词语可能是生词或短语、也可能是熟词新义,或者是一些词组的引申义。
  (2) 常见的提问方式
  The term “…”refers to?
  The word “…” could best be replaced by
  Which of the following is the closet in meaning to the word “…”?
  The underlined word “…” is the closest in meaning to
  In the … paragraph, the word “…” means/ refers to
  What does the author mean by saying “…”?
  In paragraph… the author uses the word/ phrase “…” to imply/ indicate that.
  The word “it/ they/ that/ this” refers to/ stands for
  What does the word “he/ they” refers to?
  (3) 策略指南
  利用构词法或者代入法来猜测词义。
  1所谓构词法,显而易见就是根据去除它的词根、词缀来找词根的方法,但是在阅读理解中像这种单纯的考查单词词义的题目不多,它往往需要放到原文中才能猜测出其意思。
  2所谓代入法,就是把所给的各个选项放在原句中看是否一致,这里的一致包括三个方面:第一,词性的一致,就是说如果原句中的词是名词,那你这里就不能选一个动词;第二,
  用法一致,比如说所要猜测的词为动词,并且是及物的,那么你就不能选不及物的动词作为答案;第三,褒贬色彩要一致,就是说,如果原句中是一个褒义的词,那么你就不能选择一个贬义词作为答案。
  (4) 实例分析
  (2007年Part A)
  …
  Our research shows that unionization is among the most effective strategies for
  raising pay, especially for women and minority men. Being a union member, or
  being covered by a collective­bargaining agreement, raised 1984 wages by $1.79
  per hour for Hispanic men, $1.32 for black men, $1.26 for Hispanic women, $1.01
  for black women, $0.68 for white women, and $0.41 for white men, when all other
  factors, such as occupation, industry, firm size, education and experience were
  held constant. In percentage terms, the union increase was more than 15 percent
  for blacks and Hispanics, 11 percent for white women, and 4 percent for white
  men.
  49.The term “unionization” (Line 1, Paragraph 5) refers to
  [A] mobilizing all workers to seize power.
  [B] gathering workers into an organized group.
  [C] working out strategies to raise workers’ pay.
  [D] changing wage policies for women and minority men.
  4. 主旨题
  (1) 题型特点
  要求考生在阅读和理解全文的基础上对文章做出归纳、概括或评价等。体现形式通常为:文章的标题(title)、主题(main
  idea)、结论(conclusion)等。
  (2) 常见的提问方式
  The suitable title for the passage might be
  What is the theme of the text?
  What does the passage tell us?
  Which of the following statements best expresses the main idea of the passage?
  In the first/ last paragraph, the author tells us that
  The author’s purpose is
  The best title for this passage would be
  The subject/ topic of this passage is
  (4) 实例分析
  (2007年Part A)
  Empowering workers constitutes the first step toward a stronger economy and
  stronger citizenry. It is a vital step toward overcoming inequality in American
  society. During the 1980s, the need for better wages for all workers increased
  as women, traditionally secondary earners, assumed greater responsibility for
  their own and their children’s well­being. Yet the ability to raise families to
  a decent living standard through wage work decreased; real wages fell for most
  workers. And the Federal Government enacted no new policies to facilitate the
  integration of work and family, as working women and working families suffered a
  loss in political power as well.
  Balack or Hispanic women are four times as likely to be low­wage workers as are
  white men with comparable skills and experience. White women are more than three
  times as likely as white men to be low­wage workers, and black or Hispanic men
  more than one­and­a­half times as likely. More than half of all low­wage workers
  are the only wage workers in their families, or live alone.
  Employment no longer provides an escape from poverty. More than eight million
  working adults are poor; two million of them work full­time, year­round. More
  than seven million poor children have at least one working parent. When that one
  working parent is a low­wage worker, the children have no better chance of
  escaping from poverty than if the parent were not working at all; more than
  two­fifths of such children are poor.
  Even if generous income assistance were available, the wages employers pay would
  be held to a minimum. In addition, policies such as tax credits for working
  parents do nothing to increase the political power of working women and men.
  Our research shows that unionization is among the most effective strategies for
  raising pay, especially for women and minority men. Being a union member, or
  being covered by a collective­bargaining agreement, raised 1984 wages by $1.79
  per hour for Hispanic men, $1.32 for black men, $1.26 for Hispanic women, $1.01
  for black women, $0.68 for white women, and $0.41 for white men, when all other
  factors, such as occupation, industry, firm size, education and experience were
  held constant. In percentage terms, the union increase was more than 15 percent
  for blacks and Hispanics, 11 percent for white women, and 4 percent for white
  men.
  50.What is the theme of the text?
  [A] The causes of low­wage problems.
  [B] The inequality of workers’ pay.
  [C] The improvement of the rates of pay.
  [D] The economy and the rates of pay.

  相关推荐:
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级题型串讲:英语知识运用
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级题型串讲:听力
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级pets4大纲解读

  5.作者态度题
  (1) 题型特点
  对于综合性判断情感态度的题,需要分析段落大意,分析文章走向,理解文章中心思想后才能判断出作者的情感态度来。
  (2) 常见的提问方式
  What’s the author’s attitude toward…?
  The author gives impression that…
  How does the author feel about…
  The author’s attitude towards… might be summarized as one of…
  The tone of the passage can best be described as…
  In the author’s opinion…
  In the author’s eyes…
  The author thinks/ believes/ suggests that…
  (3) 策略指南
  1要学会区分不同的观点,尤其要找出作者的观点。考生要注意文中出现的直接引语和间接语,出现的观点(一般是说话人而非作者的观点)。作者的观点一般用in my
  view,in my opinion personally,I think,I hold等表现。
  2对于选项而言,要分清选项中的褒义词、中性词和贬义词,以此对照全文。选项中表示褒义的词,一般有:positive赞成的,supporting支持的,praising赞扬
  optimistic乐观的,admiring羡慕的;interesting有趣的,humorous幽默的,serious严肃的,enthusiastic热情的,pleasant愉快的,polite礼貌的;concerned关切的;sober
  冷静的等。
  表示中性的词一般有:indifferent冷淡的,不关心的;impassive冷淡的,不动感情的,uninterested无兴趣的,不感兴趣的;ambivalent情绪矛盾的;neutral中立的;impersonal
  不带个人感情的;subjective主观的;objective客观的;in
  formative提供信息的;impartial不偏袒的;apathetic漠不关心的等。
  表示贬义的词有:disgusted感到恶心的,厌恶的;critical批评的;negative否定的,反对的;suspicious怀疑的;to1erant容忍的,忍让的;worried担忧的;pessimistic悲观的;depressed沮丧的;disappointed失望的;ironic讽刺的;sarcastic挖苦的;bitter痛苦的;cynical玩世不恭的;sentimental感伤的;emotional激动的;angry气愤的等。
  另外,对于文体的鉴别词还有:formal正式的;informal非正式的;casual随便的,等等。
  (4) 实例分析
  (2006年Part A)
  Unlike the private enterprise model, which is the foundation of the U.S. health
  care system Canada has a heath care system based on disserent principles:
  1)University: everyone is covered. 2) Portability: people can move from province
  to province and from job to job, or be unemployed, and they will still be
  covered. 3) Comprehensiveness: the plan covers all medically necessary
  treatment. 4) Public adminidtration: the system is publicly run and publicly
  accountable.
  Since 1947 Canada has had a tax-supported health care system in which every
  Canadian is covered for the costs of all medically necessary services. Under
  this plan, each citizen is issued a health card by the government, which is
  presented when health care is received. Using tax money, the government pays
  back physicians and hospitals, based on a fee schedule determined by the
  government, not the market. The keys are that the healths services are paid for
  by the government and all Canadians have equal access to the care they need.
  Canadians can select any doctor they like. The plan is a “single payer” plan;
  with the doctors billing the provincial insurance plans directly (the government
  of each Canadian province pays the medical bills of its citizens). For patients,
  there are no bills, claim forms, fees, and long waits for compensations from
  insurance carriers.
  The key difference between the Canadian system and that in the United States is
  that “in Canada health care is considered a social right, while in the United
  States it is treated more like a commodity”.
  The usual arguments against such a plan are that it is inefficient and costly.
  In Canada’s case, health care is administered more efficiently, at less cost,
  and with better results, than the health care system in the United States. The
  results, as measured by infant mortality and life expectancy, show that Canada
  is ahead of the United States. Administrative costs are less in Canada (about
  one-fourth of U.S. administrative expenses for physicians, hospital, and
  insurance companies).
  The Canadian health care system is not perfect. Canadians have less access than
  Americans to the latest technological innovations. There may be waits for those
  not needing immediate surgeries. But despite some small problems, most Canadians
  like their health care system. A Gallup Poll in 1991 revealed, for example, that
  91 percent of Canadians rated their health care system better than that in the
  United States, compared to only 26 percent of Americans who felt their system
  was superior to that in Canada.
  60. What is the author’s attitude toward the U.S. health care system?
   [A] Prejudice. [B] Critical.
   [C] Sympathetic. [D] Approving.
  四、Part A部分常见体裁特点及应对技巧
  1. 说明文
  (1) 体裁特点
  说明文是对客观事物、事理进行介绍、解说的一种文体,目的在给人以知识。它涉及的范围较广,比如科普读物、知识小品等。说明文分为事理性的说明文和事物性的说明文。事理性的说明文常对概念、成因、规律、联系等方面进行说明。事物性的说明文常从事物的形状、性质、方位、构造、类别、功能等方面进行说明。在说明文中说明的顺序一般有三种,即:空间顺序、时间顺序和逻辑顺序。
  (2) 策略指南
  这些文章中,有相当一部分文章的行文模式,或者说思维模式具有相似的特征,例如,可以将具有类似写作模式的说明文分成几个类别:第一,对某事物的特点、利弊、作用、发展过程、后果等进行说明;第二,实验、研究类。
  2. 记叙文
  (1) 体裁特点
  以写人记事、写景状物为主要内容,结合议论和抒情,以记叙为主要表达方式的一种文体。
  (2) 策略指南
  叙文的解题关键是要抓住文章的5个W,也就是记叙文五要素:时间when,地点where,人物who,事件what和原因why。
  3. 议论文
  (1) 体裁特点
  以议论位主要表达方式、以鲜明的态度表明观点、用充分的材料证明观点的文章体裁。
  (2) 策略指南
  阅读议论文时关键点有两个,一个是找到文章的中心论点,二是理清文章的结构。议论文的结构通常都是:文章一开头提出问题——〉文章中间分析问题(运用论据)——〉文章最后解决问题。
  五、大纲对Part B部分的具体要求

2011年pets4题型串讲:阅读理解

  1. 题型特点
  该部分材料的选取都不会是很专业的,生词量不大。所选择的要求翻译的片段一般是长难句、或是涵盖文章重要信息的句子。
  2. 解题指南
  (1)总的原则:行式与内容的统一;能够直译尽量不意译;先理解后表达;
  (2)具体而言
  1对词的理解可以从构思法、词的搭配关系和词汇之间的逻辑关系等方面入手;
  2对句子的理解可以从句子的内在逻辑、成分之间的从属关系和句子的语法组成等方面来实现;
  3对于长难句,可采用如下译法:
  顺译法:按照原文顺序译;
  逆续法:顺序与原文顺序相反;
  重复法:重复前一个词;
  分译法:一个句子分成几个部分来翻译;
  括号法:在译文后加括号进行解释和说明等;
  终合法:综合运用上述各种方法。
  3. 翻译技巧
  (1)增词法:根据需要增加一些词语,如名词等
  (2)减词法:根据汉语习惯,删去一些词
  (3)肯否表达法:原文为肯定句,译成汉语是为增强修饰效果,可以译为否定句。
  (4)变换法:名词译成动词或动词转译成名词等
  (5)分合法:一个长句可分成若干部分来译,或者把原文的几个简单句用一个句子表出来。
  (6)省略法:两种语言由于存在差异,表达时不可能总是对等,经常可以省略一些词和句子成分,如英语中的冠词汉语里没有,译时可以省略。
  4. 实例分析
  (2007年Part B)
  The cost of staging the year 2000 Olympics in Sydney is estimated to be a
  staggering $960 million, but 61)the city is preparing to reap the financial
  benefits that come from holding such an international event by equaling the
  commercial success of Los Angeles, the only city yet to have made a demonstrable
  profit from the Games in 1984. At precisely 4:20 a.m. on Friday the 24th of
  September 1993, it was announced that Sydney had beaten five other competing
  cities around the world, and Australians everywhere, not only Sydneysiders, were
  justifiably proud of the result. …
  …
  六、非知识性的指导和建议
  1. 考查积极的方面;
  2. 绝对化的概念不能选;
  3. 当两个选项截然相反或极为类似时,答案往往是其中的一个;
  4. 常识问题:满足生活常识的选项不一定是对的,但是不满足生活常识的一定不对。

  相关推荐:
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级题型串讲:英语知识运用
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级题型串讲:听力
  2011年全国英语等级考试四级pets4大纲解读





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